A professional lawyer who was appointed to serve as a judge by the President of the Czech Republic. As an expert they decides on some cases on their own, in other cases in bench, to reach a decision whether there was enough evidence gathered within criminal proceedings that a criminal offence has been committed, based on which it is possible to reach a conclusion that a particular perpetrator committed  a specific criminal offence. In such case the judge will bring in the verdict that the perpetrator is guilty of a specific act and they will decide at the same time what punishment will be imposed on the perpetrator. The judge wears a dark judge's gown during the judicial proceedings which has a dark violet collar.

The judge pronounces judgment on their own in cases of less serious criminal offences, which are punishable by imprisonment up to five years maximum as set out by law.
In cases of other criminal offences they pronounce judgment jointly with two other judges = non-experts in bench.

The judge directs the course of criminal proceedings at court and they also decides which witnesses will be heard within the judicial proceedings. During the hearing they establishes the identity of summoned witness, whom they will caution about the rights and duties of a witness within judicial proceedings. Then they will ask the witness to describe the course of criminal offence in their own words, as they can remember it. Subsequently they will ask additional questions in such way that they find out as accurately as possible how the committed criminal offence happened and what consequence it had. After the judge has inquired into all circumstances of the given act, there is room for other persons to ask questions, these include members of bench, public prosecutor and perpetrator’s solicitor. Also the perpetrator will be given opportunity to ask the witness questions or comment on their testimony. The judge supervises this to prevent the asked questions from being leading or inappropriate in a different way.
At the end of examination the judge will ask the witness whether they incurred any special expenses for attending the court hearing (see more information under reimbursement for substantial expences). After the judge has completed the examination of the witness, the witness can either leave the court or take a seat in the courtroom and observe the following course of judicial proceedings. The witness is free to make a decision about the above choices.



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